Category: Budgeting (page 1 of 3)

Are You Certifiable 2.0?

This is a revised and updated version of the “Are You Certifiable?” that was posted in “Death & Taxes” on November 11, 2016.  This post reflects the new online process for testing in the North Carolina Finance Officers Certification Program, as well as the overall process and requirements to obtain certification recognition.  The previous version of the blogpost has been removed.

The above question has been posed to me time and again over the years, probably for obvious reasons!  (And the quick answer is…yes, I am! But I digress…)  However, it was not posed from the perspective of how I am using it in this context. One of the most common phone calls or e-mails that I receive on a regular basis relates to the North Carolina Finance Officers Certification Program.  As more and more baby boomers have their retirement lunches and collect their gold watches (click here for more on that topic!), the turnover in local government finance across the state and the infusion of newly minted local government finance employees has contributed to the exploding interest in this program.  This blog focuses on the specifics of the program, educational and testing requirements, and other frequently asked questions.  This is an updated version of a previously posted blog about the certification program to address the new by-laws and the introduction of the online testing format.

What is the North Carolina Government Finance Officers Association (NCGFOA) certification program?

The NCGFOA certification program was created over 30 years ago as a joint effort of the then North Carolina Public Finance Officers Association and the North Carolina Association of County Finance Officers (the two associations formerly merged into the NCGFOA in 2011).  The program is governed by a Certification Committee made up of both municipal and county officials that are members of the Association and appointed by its President to serve one or more terms.  Contrary to popular belief, the program is not a certification program of the UNC School of Government . The School’s role is to provide administrative and consultative support.

In general, who is eligible to be considered for certification?

Individuals that are a finance officer of a local government or public authority or individuals that hold a supervisory or professional position in a local government or public authority related to financial functions, such as internal audit, investments, budgeting, or accounting.  The general rule is that an Associates degree or higher is required for initial hires that occur January 1, 2010, and after.  Thus, there are no degree requirements for individuals hired in local government BEFORE January 1, 2010.  Ultimately, to apply for certification after all educational and testing requirements have been met, individuals must be members of the NCGFOA.

What experience is necessary in order to apply for certification?

The basic experience requirements are:

  1. At least one year’s experience in North Carolina as a legally designated finance officer of a local government or public authority and at least one additional year of governmental financial management/responsibility, or
  2. At least two years’ experience in North Carolina local government finance and at least two additional years of governmental financial management/responsibility.

The experience must be within the five years that precede the application for certification.  However, the educational and testing processes may be taking place while the experience is being gained.

The “additional year or years of governmental financial management/responsibility” as referred to above may have been gained in another state.

May an advanced educational degree or other type of certification replace some of the experience requirements?

A master’s or doctoral degree may replace one year of any experience requirements.  Likewise, a valid Certified Public Accountant (CPA) would replace one year of experience requirements.

May the experience requirements be met in another state or may another state’s finance officers’ certification program be transferred to the North Carolina certification?

Generally, no. A valid CPA license would still count for one year of experience, but other types of state certifications are not transferrable. Work experience in another state may not replace the required “North Carolina years” of experience as referred to previously, but may satisfy the “additional year or years of governmental financial management/responsibility”.

What are the educational requirements of the certification process?

There are five core courses related to the certification program and each are part of the UNC School of Government curriculum.  An individual must successfully complete four of these programs.  The five core courses are:

  1. Introduction to Local Government Finance
  2. Governmental Accounting and Financial Reporting
  3. Budgeting and Financial Planning (two courses but counted collectively as one requirement)
    1. Budgeting in Local Government
    2. Capital Financing in Local Government
  4. Cash Management and Investment of Public Funds
  5. Effective Supervisory Management Program

Are there any waiver options for the core courses?

If one has completed the School of Government’s Municipal and County Administration Program, it can replace the Introduction to Local Government Finance program.

Experience may be used to waive core courses, as follows:

  1. Three to six years of experience in North Carolina governmental finance may substitute one core course requirement.
  2. Over six years of experience in North Carolina governmental finance may substitute two core course requirements.

It should be noted, however, that the courses themselves are excellent reviews for the related examinations.

Could other courses or programs be considered as waivers for any of the core courses?

Yes, potentially.  The Certification Committee may be asked to approve whether or not a particular course or program offered by an institution of higher learning, a professional association, or other similar organization could be considered as an appropriate substitution.  Such decisions are made on a case-by-case basis.

Does one have to take a core course before they can sit for the associated examination?

Actually, no.  However, the core courses themselves are considered to be an integral part of the educational process in preparing one to be a certified finance officer.  To that end, the general expectation is that the core course requirements will be met, regardless if the test is passed before completing the course.

Is there a possible “testing out” option for any of the core courses?

There is one opportunity for an individual to waive all core course requirements by examination.  The exams themselves are administered online three times per year (more on that shortly).  If a person sits for and passes all four exams within a calendar year’s examinations, all or any of the core course requirements that haven’t been completed would be waived.  If all four exams are not passed during this attempt, but one or more of them are successfully passed, the individual will receive core course credit for those parts passed.  However, the remaining core course requirements must be completed.

What are the examination requirements?

There are four exams that must be successfully completed (i.e., pass with a grade of 70% or higher).  There are no waivers for the exams.  The four exams are as follows:

  1. Governmental Accounting and Financial Reporting
  2. Cash Management and Investment of Public Funds
  3. Budgeting and Financial Planning
  4. Financial and Supervisory Management (tied to the Effective Supervisory Management Program)

Except as noted above, the exams are obviously directly related to an associated core course.  The Introduction to Local Government Finance course does not have a related examination, per se, but is rather a course that includes all related subjects.

Who develops the examinations and how are they structured?

The Certification Committee is responsible for maintaining a test bank for all exams and it is updated on a regular basis.  As accounting and financial reporting requirements in particular are ever-changing, the testing topics will evolve as well.  However, such changes in accounting and financial reporting requirements will not be included in the test banks until after they are required to be implemented.  The exams are administered three times per year on a secure SAKAI platform.

The tests themselves are objective.    Each of the four exams will have 50 multiple choice questions worth 2 points each.  The exams are on a 100 point grading scale.  The grade results are either Pass or Fail.  Numerical grades will not be given.

How are the exams administered?

The exams will be available on the last successive Thursday and Friday of January, May, and September of each calendar year.  Announcements will be posted when registration is available for each testing cycle.  The exams will be accessible from 8 a.m. until 3 p.m. of each of those days.  Any of the four exams can be accessed during that time.  Once an exam is opened, there will be 2 hours to complete it.  There is no pausing the exam. At the end of 2 hours, the exam will automatically close if it has not already been submitted.  If that occurs, the candidate will only get credit for those questions answered correctly.

How many opportunities does an individual have to complete all four examinations?

The Certification Committee considers the “clock” to have begun once an individual successfully passes at least one of the four exams.  Again, successful completion of an exam is to pass with at least a grade of 70% – which will be communicated simply as a Pass or a Fail.  From that point, an individual has 4 years to complete the remaining parts.

How much does it cost to take an exam?

While subject to change, depending on what is necessary to cover exam costs, the current fee structure to sit for one or more exams is as follows:

  1. One part – $50
  2. Two parts –    80
  3. Three parts – 110
  4. Four parts –  140

Payment for the exams may be made online at the time of registration or the School of Government will send an invoice for those that cannot pay upfront.  There are discounts built into the pricing structure when multiple tests are taken during a testing cycle.

When are individuals notified of their exam results?

Although the exams are automatically scored initially, results will be withheld until all exams are reviewed to ensure there were no internal coding issues, especially in the early exams.  Participants should be notified whether they passed or failed by e-mail within one to two weeks following the exam.   There are no numerical grades – only Pass or Fail.

Are there any study guides and/or practice exams available?

There are no official study guides prepared for any of the exams.  The primary resource for study would be the respective course itself and the associated materials. An Introduction to Local Government Finance, Fourth Edition (2018) is the best resource for overall reference.  In addition, Section 159 of the North Carolina General Statutes (click here) includes all of the basic requirements of finance officials in North Carolina. As for the Governmental Accounting and Financial Reporting exam, other governmental GAAP textbooks such as the national Government Finance Officers Association Governmental Accounting, Auditing, and Financial Reporting are good supplemental materials.

There are no practice exams available, nor are copies of previously-taken exams available for review.

What happens after I successfully complete the examinations and all other certification requirements?

The following blogpost covers post-certification life and answers all the frequently asked questions related to continuing professional educational requirements and renewal periods.

Budgeting in Local Government course: Registration now open


Budgeting in Local Government
November 6-9, 2018, School of Government

This four-day course covers the legal and management framework of budget preparation and enactment in North Carolina local government.  Participants will discuss the numerous processes and techniques used to produce an annual operating budget and capital budget.


Program Topics:

  • Local Government Fiscal and Control Act (Only for participants who have not attended Introduction to Local Government Finance)
  • Tax Efficiency & Equity
  • Economic Development
  • Revenue Forecasting
  • Resource Allocation
  • Budgeting for Schools and Human Services
  • Budgeting for Enterprises
  • Fund Balance
  • Citizen Engagement
  • Capital Improvement Program
  • Financial Condition Analysis
  • Budget Presentation
  • Revenue-Neutral Property Tax Rate
  • Budget Award & Course Evaluation


Who Should Attend: This course is intended for city and county managers, budget and finance officers, budget and financial analysts, and other officials who have significant responsibilities for annual budget preparation and enactment.


Cost:  $550


Registration:  Register online at for this course.


Faculty Coordinator: Whitney Afonso, Assistant Professor of Public Administration and Government.


For more information: Contact Alycia Inserra, Program Management Team Lead, at 919.843.7736 or



Sales Tax Reform: Articles and Virtual Roundtable

In the wake of the Wayfair ruling and our changes happening in North Carolina I am excited to share a virtual issue of Public Budgeting & Finance that I edited.  It compiles articles published in the journal and presents questions and concerns regarding the future of sales tax policy.  It also makes access to the articles open (i.e., FREE!) for the next six months.  So please take a look, there are a mix of studies that examine state and local issues.



Also, in addition to editing the virtual issue, I will be moderating a virtual roundtable next Thursday (Sept 6th) on the topic.  Please tune in!  The presenters are: Donald Bruce from the University of Tennessee, Cynthia Rogers from the University of Oklahoma, and Barry Boardman is the Chief Economist for the NC General Assembly. The presenters are very knowledgeable and experts on different aspects of sales taxes and are sure to share important insights, suggestions, and considerations.  See the flier for the event!


Consulting with Citizens

Consultation is a different beast altogether than information sharing.  Whereas information sharing is a one way relationship, consultation creates a two way relationship based on citizen feedback.  It relies on a fundamental assumption by local leaders that citizen feedback is beneficial to the budget process and decision making (often with regard to expenditures or even tax rate setting).  This method provides for and encourages citizen input while still allowing local leaders to define the agenda.  The key is that practitioners and elected officials solicit input a set of issues and questions that they create and control. 

Continue reading

Budgeting in Local Government: Registration now open

Budgeting in Local Government
October 31st – November 3rd, 2017, School of Government

This four-day course covers the legal and management framework of budget preparation and enactment in North Carolina local government.  Participants will discuss the numerous processes and techniques used to produce an annual operating budget and capital budget.

Continue reading

Engaging our future: A guide to going into the classroom

In the last three blogs we have been talking about citizen engagement (see here, here, and here).  One of the areas that is most frustrating for governments is often their attempts to engage citizens are not particularly successful.  Citizens may not have time or easy access to the events and resources, but there are ways around that.  What happens when it is simply that citizens DO NOT WANT to engage?  That is often the reality.  Governments spend precious time and resources developing great opportunities but no one (or few) takes advantage of them.  This is an aspect of citizen engagement I have been personally interested in and one that I believe we can address by starting ‘em young.

Continue reading

The classics: Traditional modes of information sharing


Consider these tactics and efforts the Moby Dick, Wuthering Heights, and Alice in Wonderland of sharing budget information.  Except no one makes you read (or watch) these in high school.

Continue reading

The first step in citizen engagement: Information Sharing

The first step, in my opinion, in productive citizen engagement is providing information and helping educate citizens about government and budgeting.  This is because government is just a black box to most people.  They sort of understand some of the most basic functions of government, but may not have any idea of which level of government does it.  Who pays for libraries? Roads? Do I have police and a sheriff?  What about fire service?  What does the state even do?  These are not unrealistic questions. Continue reading

Autonomous Vehicles are coming, is your city ready?

Do you want your bonds to kill your city’s bond ratings?

Do you want your bonds to go into default?

Do you want to be responsible for a backlash against the mayor/council for not planning for a future you should have known was coming?

Do you want your city to become even more clogged with traffic, but this time the cars are empty and slowing everyone down?

Ignoring autonomous vehicles (AVs) may be possible today, but just know, they are coming soon–and by soon I mean this year (2017). While AVs may not yet be mainstream transportation today, do not count on it just being something your grandkids use. Cities have to start planning now, or their leaders will be saying YES (begrudgingly) to those questions above. A new report out from the folks at the Sustainable Cities Initiative at the University of Oregon is looking to help you deal with these questions. You can read our report here.

Continue reading

Citizen Engagement in the Budgeting Process

There has been a lot of interest in how to tighten up the relationships between citizens and their local governments.  At the local level there is a lot more opportunity to work with and get feedback from citizens. This is accomplished by many communities and in various ways.  I believe, and I know this will be shocking, that the budget is the single best place to engage citizens.  The budget is the encyclopedia of government.  The budget reflects what government does and reflects priorities based on spending decisions, as well as changes in the community as reflected in changes in the budget from year to year.

***I love this quote from a VP debate in 2012. 1) It is true. 2) It is hilarious because we are living in a time of continuing resolutions rather than budgets at the federal level, so I guess we prioritize not making hard decisions and not working together.*** Continue reading

Older posts

© 2019 Copyright,
The University of North
Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Theme by Anders NorenUp ↑